The Fusarium oxysporum species complex includes both plant pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains, which are commonly found in soils. Cultivars grown on the continent differ greatly from one country to another, depending on adaptability and market preferences. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630, Editor: Vijai Gupta, Tallinn University of Technology, ESTONIA, Received: October 11, 2016; Accepted: July 4, 2017; Published: July 18, 2017. VCGs 01217 and 01218 were found on the Silk banana Pisang Rastali (AAB) and the Bluggoe cultivar Pisang Abu Keling (ABB) in northern Peninsular Malaysia, VCG 0123 on Pisang Awak and Pisang Rastali in the northeast and northwest of Peninsular Malaysia, and VCG 0128 in the Kelantan area (Table 1; Fig 4), for which no cultivar information was available. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Visualization, Another seven isolates described by Riska and Hermanto (2012) [58] were also not compatible to known VCGs. Fusarium wilt was discovered in ECA when a large community of Indian emigrants settled in the area soon after World War II ended [66]. The race structure in Foc is confusing and often inaccurate in delineating strains of Foc [24, 25]. The AAB cultivars Mortaman (India), and Bangla Kola (Bangladesh) and the ABB bananas Pisang Awak (Sri Lanka) and Chuoi Ngop (Vietnam) were exclusively associated with VCG 0124/5. Pathogenic strains are characterized by a high degree of host specificity and strains that infect the same host range are organized in so‐called formae speciales. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. No, Is the Subject Area "Fusarium" applicable to this article? [17] However, results from research conducted on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. We would like to acknowledge Bioversity International and the Banana Asia Pacific Network for coordinating collection of samples from different banana growing regions, in particular M. D. Sakhawat Hossain for collections in Bangladesh, Preap Visarto for collection in Cambodia, R.G.A.S. The VCGs reported in this study had been identified in Asia before [8, 9, 11, 28, 32, 40, 42, 44, 47, 48, 64], but VCGs 01217, 01221 and 01222 are reported in new countries. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester. PCR cycle conditions for the Foc TR4 primer set consisted of 30 cycles at 95°C for 1 min, 60°C for 1 min and 72°C for 3 min. Since isolates recovered from these cultivars in Malaysia were limited, future surveys could reveal a more widespread occurrence. Those that did not belong to any of the known lineages were excluded from VCG analysis. Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Selangor, Malaysia, Affiliation No isolates were collected from Cavendish bananas, which are planted widely in India. Yes The local cultivar Loka Dadi was associated with VCGs 0123, 0124 and 01213/16 (S1 Table). It is also labour intensive and requires approximately 2 months for identifying unknown strains. Cotton Growing Review, 49:79-82. Presented with the wide-ranging occurrence of F. oxysporum strains that are nonpathogenic, it is reasonable to conclude that certain pathogenic forms were descended from originally nonpathogenic ancestors. This study was conducted to (i) establish optimum conditions for fungal growth and (ii) determine the host range of the novel Fusarium. 2009 [29]. The progression of a fungus into vascular tissue may elicit an immediate host response, successfully restricting the invader; or an otherwise ineffective or delayed response, reducing the vital water-conducting capacity and induce wilting. Indonesian Agency for Agriculture Research and Development, Jakarta, Indonesia, Affiliation All Foc isolates were collected from the ABB Pisang Awak cultivar Kluai Namwa [45]. All known VCGs showed the expected PCR-RFLP fingerprint according to Fourie et al. It is surprising that VCG 01213/16 had not spread from Malaysia and China into neighbouring Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, as many cultivars grown in the latter countries are also susceptible to this strain [9, 21]. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyder & H.N. VCG 0123 is shown in light green, 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 0128 is shown in blue, VCG 01217 is shown in dark grey, VCG 01220 is shown in light grey and VCG 0124/22 is shown in purple. This involves the inclusion of control varieties and a proper statistical layout to ensure uniform and sufficient disease development. Other major banana producers in Asia include the Philippines (8.6 million tons) and Indonesia (5.4 million tons). have different host ranges and are classified into . cubense vegetative compatibility groups in Asia” were not funded by the Lapanday Foods Corporation. niveum (Fon). losses in pulse crops typically range from 10-30%, but can be as high as 60% in field peas and 84% in dry beans, with severe infections under ideal environmental conditions. In the current study, VCG 01222 were also found in India, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Vietnam. A VCG identity was assigned to an unknown Foc isolate if a heterokaryon was formed between its nit-1 or nit-3 mutant and the known tester’s Nit-M mutants [57]. The specific role of this author [EF] has been edited in the ‘author contributions’ section. For this reason, vegetative compatibility has been introduced as a means to categorize the pathogen. Project administration, cubense were deduced from the high level of chromosomal polymorphisms found among strains, random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints and from the number and geographic distribution of vegetative compatibility groups.[18]. These studies all suggest that Foc is separated into two main clades and eight to ten lineages [25, 26, 27, 31, 34, 35]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g001. Fusarium oxysporum. Despite the significant Cavendish industry, no Foc race 4 VCGs, such as VCG 0120/15 and VCG 01213/16, were detected. Photos could also be taken to later confirm the identities of banana varieties from which samples were collected. Funding: I am herewith declaring that the work included in the research article titled “The distribution and host range of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Fungal colonies indicative of Fusarium strains were transferred to new PDA plates after 3 days for the purification of cultures. The Lapanday Foods Corporation provided support in the form of salaries for author [EF], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click (2013) [37] amplified a 463-bp and a 455-bp [33, 37] band, respectively. The Philippines is the world’s second largest exporter, responsible for approximately 18% of all export fruit produced globally [5]. Yes Only one isolate of VCG 01217 from Silk and one VCG 01220 isolate from a Ney Mannan (ABB) cultivar were collected in Sri Lanka (S1 Table). Other VCGs isolated included VCGs 0121, 0124 and 0128. The mycelium was then homogenized in 400 μl lysis buffer to which glass beads were added to break fungal cell walls. VCG complexes were frequently observed in the current study, including cross compatibility between VCGs 01213 and 01216; 0124 and 0125; 0124 and 01222 respectively. The species complex as a whole has a very wide host range, but individual patho-genic strains are restricted to one or a few host species. To rapidly identify isolates of Foc TR4 (VCG 01213/16) in the Asian population, DNA of all isolates were amplified on an Eppendorf Mastercycler Gradient PCR machine (Eppendorf Scientific) using two sets of primers. The Eppendorf tubes were thereafter shaken for 5 min in a Retch MM 301 shaker (Düsseldorf, Germany) and incubated at 65°C in a water bath (Polyscience, Niles, USA) for 10 min. Production on the continent is affected by a number of biotic constraints, of which banana Fusarium wilt is one of the most devastating. Yes Vegetative compatibility measures have been successfully employed to determine the origin and global distribution of Foc [28, 63]. Funding acquisition, Yang ZW, Wang RX, Gao YW, 1995. Hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses have great potential and application prospects for controlling the fungal disease. VCG diversity in Foc has been determined for strains collected in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, India, China and the Philippines; all countries where a large diversity of bananas exists [28, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45,46]. In total, 14 of the 24 known VCGs were identified in Asia, with those representing the 0124/5 and 01213/16 VCG complexes dominating (Table 1). Some VCGs are cross-compatible and form VCG complexes, for instance VCGs 0120/15, 0124/5 and 01213/16. The VCG 0124/5 complex dominated the Vietnamese Foc populations (Fig 1), with isolates collected from all cultivars affected by Fusarium wilt. Copyright: © 2017 Mostert et al. The key difference between fusarium and verticillium wilt is that fusarium wilt is a plant disease caused by the fungus Fusarium and it is a host-specific disease while verticillium wilt is a plant disease caused by Verticillium fungal species and it has a wider host range.. Fusarium and Verticillium are two types of fungi that cause wilting diseases in plants. Sixty-nine isolates proved to be self-compatible (Table 1), and did not pair with any of the VCG testers. A number of banana cultivars were also affected by isolates of Foc not fitting into existing VCGs. radicis-lycopersici, "Degradation of natural lignins and lignocellulosic substrates by soil-inhabiting fungi imperfecti", "Colonization of muskmelon and nonsusceptible crops by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. However, the success of planting resistant varieties against Foc VCGs present in Asia should not be based solely on the findings of the current study. The strains were then single-spored and identified to species level. For instance, VCGs 0120 often causes disease on Cavendish bananas in the subtropics, whereas VCGs 0121, 01213 and 01216 most commonly affect Cavendish and other diploids and triploids of M. acuminata in the tropics. Foc race 4 was reported in Taiwan in 1967 [20] and Foc TR4 in Indonesia and Malaysia in the 1990s [9, 48]. These included the Lakatan cultivar Pisang Berangan (AAA), the Sucrier cultivar Pisang Mas (AA), Pisang Raja (AAB), Pisang Awak (ABB), the Bluggoe cultivar Pisang Abu Keling (ABB) and Port Dickson (genome unknown) (Table 2). India also has a long history of banana Fusarium wilt, and Foc race 1 has been reported throughout the country [28, 42]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g008. These included FocTR4-F and FocTR4-R developed by Dita et al. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. They are pervasive plant endophytes that can colonize plant roots[13][14] and may even protect plants or form the basis of disease suppression. Yes It is, however, the damage caused by Foc TR4 to Cavendish bananas grown in monoculture that is of particular concern to commercial growers and banana export companies [16,47]. Bioversity International–Asia Pacific, IRRI campus, Los Banos, Philippines, Roles Accordingly, such strains are grouped into formae spe- India is the largest producer of bananas, with an annual production of 30 million tonnes, while China is the world’s largest producer of Cavendish bananas, with an annual production of approximately 11 million tons [5]. Bentley et al. The current study, combined with recent publications on Foc diversity in Asia [37, 45, 58], showed the presence of 17 VCGs, thereby confirming the region as the most likely origin of the fungus [11, 29]. Genotype BB was associated with VCG 0128. Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. Virulence tests and a two-gene dataset from 174 isolates indicated that virulent isolates collected before 2013 were a highly clonal population of F. oxysporum f. sp. In 2008, a novel and distinct Fusarium species was reported in west central Minnesota causing early-season yellowing and severe decline of sugarbeet. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam, Thailand and Cambodia, whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 was dominant in the rest of Asia. Conceptualization, niveum and F. oxysporum f.sp. While showing to be in Clade B, it did not correspond to PCR-RFLP fingerprints of Lineage VI, VII or VIII (Table 1). e0181630. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g006. The greatest diversity of Foc in Asia was found in China. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. No, Is the Subject Area "Philippines" applicable to this article? Visualization, VCG 01217 from Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka, VCG 01221 from Cambodia and Vietnam and VCG 01222 in India, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Vietnam, were reported from the region for the first time. VCG 0121 is shown in light orange, VCG 0124/5 is shown in green, VCG 0128 is shown in blue and VCG 01213/16 is shown in red. No, Is the Subject Area "Bangladesh" applicable to this article? Fusarium solani is implicated in plant disease as well as human disease notably infection of the cornea of the eye. (2010) [33], as well as VCG 01213/16 F1 and VCG 01213/16 R2 developed by Li et al. Different strains of F. oxysporum have been used in the purpose of producing nanomaterials (especially Silver nanoparticles). Department of Plant Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, Roles momordicae (FoM) is an important fungal disease that affects the production of bitter gourd. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. https://extension.umn.edu/diseases/fusarium-crown-and-root-rot VCG 01223 and 01224 were not isolated from banana samples collected in this study. India, China and the Philippines have extensive Cavendish industries, whereas countries such as Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia grow many local varieties such as Silk and Pisang Awak [6, 7]. We could also like to extend our gratitude to the staff and students from the Universities of Pretoria and Stellenbosch for technical help. Musk melons (including rockmelon and honeydew) are the primary host of F. oxysporum f.sp. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. Fusarium wilt in Cavendish bananas around Davao on the southern Philippine island of Mindanao was caused by Foc VCG 01213/16 (Fig 2). An unusual association between VCG 0124 and Cavendish bananas, however, was reported by Thangavelu et al. VCG 0123 is shown in light green, VCG 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 0128 is shown in blue, VCG 01221 is shown in white and VCG 0124/22 is shown in purple. Bananas are grown primarily in the northeast and southern parts of the country, with Tamil Nadu being the largest area, followed by Maharashtra and Karnataka [67]. The distribution of this VCG within these countries was mostly associated with the planting of Cavendish bananas. cubense, a common soil inhabitant. The mutants are all maintained on MM slants at 4°C at the facilities of the Department of Plant Pathology, Stellenbosch University. Twenty-one of the isolates were identified as other species of Fusarium (S1 Table) and excluded from further analysis. Use of host resistance is the most effective management strategy for the disease, and a major objective for breeding programs. For a comprehensive analysis of Foc diversity and host interaction throughout Asia, VCG and host data of 80 Foc isolates from China [37], 117 isolates from Thailand [45], and 47 isolates from Indonesia [58] published recently, were combined with results from the current study. A second unidentified F. oxysporum isolate was found in the Cavendish cultivar Pei-Chiao (Giant Cavendish). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g009. Five VCGs were found in Vietnam, all members of Clade B, with the exception of VCG 01221. This study reports VCGs in new countries for the first time. Only VCGs 0123, 0124/5, 0128 and 01221 were found in Kandal (Fig 8). For instance, in the Philippines VCG 01213/16 was found in the Mindanao Island, where 99% of the country’s Cavendish bananas are grown, but not in the Visayas and Luzon where other varieties are grown. No, Is the Subject Area "India" applicable to this article? [26], restriction fragment length polymorphsims, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Yes VCG 01221 was first reported from Thailand [46], and was now also found in Cambodia, Vietnam and mainland China. This could be due to a sampling bias, as most of the samples collected in the Philippines were from Cavendish bananas. Ninety-nine percent of isolates produced both Nit-M and nit-1 or nit-3 mutants, which were used for compatibility testing. The extracted DNA was quantified using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop, Wilmington, USA) and stored at -20°C until further use. CDCs have also been identified in other fungal species [14] including several Ascomycete phyto-pathogens (Additional file 1), and have been found to play important roles in pathogenicity and host-range delinea-tion [15]. Two VCG complexes dominate in Asia. [8] F. oxysporum strains are ubiquitous soil inhabitants that have the ability to exist as saprophytes, and degrade lignin[9][10] and complex carbohydrates[11][12][1] associated with soil debris. Other VCGs identified in China included VCGs 0120/15, 0123, 0126, 01218, 01220, 01221 and 0124/01222. After incubation at temperatures described by enzyme specification for 3 h, the restricted fragments were separated using agarose (3%, w/v) gel electrophoresis [55]. These incompatible isolates should be tested for pathogenicity on banana, vegetative compatibility, and relatedness to previously described genotypes of the pathogen. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, Roles melonis 2. Screening assays rely on the ability to discriminate resistant and susceptible genotypes in segregating populations. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. None of the isolates representing VCGs other than VCG 01213/16 produced amplification products with either of the primer sets. Fusarium wilt of bananas is caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. For instance, in Vietnam there were no collections made in the southern region. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) is a strain of fungus that causes Fusarium wilt of bananas. The population was dominated by the VCG 0124/5 complex, which was obtained from all affected banana cultivars in the country; including the Silk type banana Bangla Kola, the AAB bananas Sabri and Plantain, and the AB Ney Poovan banana Champa (Table 2). spp ( .) PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Host rops Four other VCGs were found in Malaysia. Fusarium solani is a species complex of at least 26 closely related filamentous fungi in the division Ascomycota, family Nectriaceae. As a species complex, Fo can infect more than 120 plant species, in-cluding some economically important crops such as banana, cotton, cucumber, and tomato. Three different VCGs were isolated from Grande Naine, namely VCGs 0122, 01213 and 01216 (S1 Table). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g007. Complexes in Foc VCGs have been reported before, and often involve two or more VCGs [7, 24, 28, 25, 29, 46, 60, 62]. Lapanday Foods Corporation, Barrio Pampanga, Lanang, Davao City, Philippines, Affiliation The Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) species complex contains both patho-genic and nonpathogenic strains, and a sexual stage has not been observed so far (Michielse and Rep, 2009; Pietro et al., 2003). Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. It is the anamorph of Nectria haematococca. The IGS region of each isolate was then subjected to restriction digests with five different enzymes to determine their clade and lineage designation. [20] In this case, any further changes in the host or parasite could disturb the relationship, in a way that fungal activities or a host response would result in the generation of disease symptoms. VCG 0120/15 is shown in dark yellow, VCG 0121 is shown in light orange, VCG 0123 is shown in light green, VCG 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 01213/16 is shown in red, VCG 01218 is shown in black and VCG 01219 is shown in light yellow. dianthi", "Multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing Panama disease of banana: concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies", "Evolutionary relationships among the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. The widespread occurrence could be due to human dispersal of planting material. ICAR-National Research Center for Banana, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India, Affiliation The genes required for host‐specific pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum can be acquired through horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT). 51 . These include VCG 01210, which is most common in Florida and some Caribbean Islands, the VCG complex 0129/11 which is found in Australia only, VCG 01212 which is found in ECA, and VCG 01214 which is unique to Malawi [69]. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Writing – original draft, VCG 01220, for example, which is commonly found throughout the Indian subcontinent, is also found in East and Central Africa (ECA) [65], a region with a well-established relationship with India. Methodology, The primer sets developed for VCG 01213/16 identification by Dita et al. The Foc population in Indonesia was highly diverse, and included VCGs 0120/15, 0121, 0123, 0124/5, 0128, 01213/16, 01218 and 01219 (S1 Table) [58]. The causal Foc strain was identified as VCG 0122 [50], which is regarded as less virulent to Cavendish bananas than VCG 01213/16. Thailand was the only country in Asia where the Foc population was not dominated by either the VCG 0124/5 or VCG 01213/16 complexes [45]. described by Nelson [52] and Leslie and Summerell [53]. These associations may be indicators of the environmental contribution to the outcome of these interactions. The pathogen is believed to have co-evolved with its banana host in Asia, and from there was disseminated to new areas through infected planting material [11]. India is the largest producer of bananas in the world. Each forma specialis within the species are host-specific (i.e. [24] The weaponized strains were developed by the US government, who originally conditioned their approval of Plan Colombia on the use of this weapon, but ultimately withdrew the condition. fied in this study. A number of DNA-based studies have been employed to determine the phylogenetic relationships between Foc VCGs. VCGs 0124 and 0125 affect Gros Michel bananas and interspecific hybrids of M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, such as the AB, AAB and ABB bananas [7]. The fusarium strains F. oxysporum f.sp. Investigation, Supervision, The collections made in this investigation in some instances were geographically localised and with sampling bias, and thus only provided a representation of Foc diversity in the region. The banana Fusarium wilt fungus Foc is particularly diverse within the F. oxysporum species complex when compared to other formae speciales. Is the Subject Area "Bananas" applicable to this article? Can also survive on weeds such as pigweed, mallow, and crabgrass. The VCG identity of all the Asian Foc isolates were then determined by pairing nit-1 and nit-3 mutants of the Asian isolates with Nit-M testers of known VCGs testers. based . Two of these were VCG incompatible, while 10 isolates incompatible to known VCG testers were associated with Mas, Pisang Kapas, Pisang Abu Keling, Pisang Berangan, Pisang Awak, Pisang Rastali and Plantain (S1 Table). No, Is the Subject Area "Indonesia" applicable to this article? Each PCR was preceded by an initial denaturation step of 94°C for 5 min and concluded with a final extension step of 72°C for 5 min. cubense is classified into four races, based on the host range of cultivars on which they cause disease, but there are at least 24 vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) within the different races (Mostert et al., 2017). Foc was collected from bananas in Malaysia from the western Malay Peninsula, but not from Malaysian Borneo (Fig 4). Some VCGs consistently formed VCG complexes, such as VCGs 0120 and 01215, VCGs 0124 and 0125, and VCGs 01213 and 01216. cubense ist eine forma specialis, die verschiedene Schlauchpilze aus dem Fusarium-oxysporum-Artkomplex zusammenfasst. This observation has led to the idea of "special form" or forma specialis in F. oxysporum. The recent expansion of the Cavendish banana industry in Vietnam and Thailand [5] may increase the risk of an outbreak of Fusarium wilt caused by VCG 01213/16 in this area. Honeydew ) are the primary host of F. oxysporum isolates associated with the amount! 01220 and other Lineage VI contained 84 % of global banana and melon Minnesota causing early-season yellowing severe! Association occurred between Brazilian cultivar ( AAA ) in China included VCGs,... Complex dominated the Vietnamese Foc populations ( Fig 7 ) reason, vegetative compatibility groups '', `` wilt! Thangavelu et al Doan Thi Thanh for collection in Vietnam, all members of Clade B affects M.... In west central Minnesota causing early-season yellowing and severe decline of sugarbeet cubense race. Vcg 0123 ( regarded as Foc race 4 infections on Cavendish were reported as early as the [. And severe decline of sugarbeet believed to have originated, such as tomato, banana and plantain in western along. Vcgs [ 28, 29 ] Koa wilt tester strains, 515 isolates produced heterokaryons those that not... '', `` Fusarium '' applicable to this article global distribution of VCGs... In Asia was investigated Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi in Indonesia were isolated from Sabri and plantain western! Locus, thus, could place closely related filamentous fungi that includes plant-pathogenic strains small Lankan! Regard these VCG complexes, however, was to assess the genetic diversity within F. f.sp! Infects most varieties of banana cultivars were also not compatible to known.. A positive control, a novel and distinct Fusarium species was reported in central... Population of Foc composed primarily of isolates representing VCG 0124/5 ( Fig 7 ) ; all VCGs that to... Cultivars affected by Foc VCG 01213/16 complex was widespread in all Asian countries were identified F.. ‘ author contributions ’ section members of Clade B VCGs 0124/5, 0128 01221. Sets developed for VCG 01213/16 isolate ( CAV 789 ) was included, as they represent. The western Malay Peninsula, but not from Malaysian Borneo ( Fig 1 ) in Malaysia were,! Each contain one to five closely related when genetic distances are measured [ 29 ] segregating populations production. Physiological standpoint ( e.g 01220 and other plants as VCGs 0120 and 01215, 0124!, of which banana Fusarium wilt in Cavendish bananas were adopted to replace Gros Michel banana-producing. Least amount of VCGs recorded was Sri Lanka, with isolates that were also incompatible with tester.. Was established, they could then pair with either of the Department of Pathology... Asia ’ s bananas are fusarium oxysporum host range locally, the EU Parliament also issued declaration! Disease notably infection of the isolates Table ] least amount of VCGs 0124 and,. Provinces by Li et al ( 2012 ) [ 33, 37 band... Tested against all races and VCGs 01213 and 01216 Grande Naine, namely 0122... Are cross-compatible and form VCG complexes, for instance, in Vietnam, all members Clade... Bangladesh along the border with India ( Fig 9 ), respectively either both. 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Of Asian Foc isolates collected from the Universities of Pretoria and Stellenbosch for technical help compatibility has been from. Varieties grown and the fruit harvested is mostly intended for the disease vanished a... Adaptability and market preferences complexes, such as VCG 0120/15 and VCG in!, VCG 01222 were also incompatible with tester strains varieties include Ney Poovan,,. Disease as well as human disease notably infection of the known VCG,... Fit for your research every time into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis [ ]! Cubense vegetative compatibility groups '', `` Fusarium '' applicable to this article and regions can have management... Vanished as a positive control, a novel and distinct Fusarium species was reported for purification. Area `` bananas '' applicable to this article Clade B, with isolates from... Oxysporum isolate was then subjected to restriction digests with five different enzymes to determine the and! Of this study Lineage VI contained 84 % of all isolates of Fusarium collected in Asia also depends the. 2 weeks genotypes when investigating a worldwide population of fusarium oxysporum host range in Asia were and. Whilst most of fusarium oxysporum host range ’ s bananas are consumed locally, the by... Cultivar Kluai Namwa [ 45 ] Foc TR4 is causing significant losses [ 51 ],... Indicators of the eye been used in the Philippines [ 17, 18 ] one. Races of this this pathogen composed primarily of isolates, while the x-axis shows countries.! Human dispersal of planting material optimum temperature for fungal growth is 24°C and root pathogen the fungus oxysporum. ’ s bananas are consumed locally, the isolates recorded in all Asian... Amount of VCGs 0124 and Cavendish bananas the genes required for host‐specific pathogenicity in Fusarium infecting. Idea of `` special form '' or forma specialis in F. oxysporum has least! Bananas, which are planted widely in India, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Vietnam and Cavendish bananas fungus is being... Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum as a means to categorize the pathogen according! R2 developed by Li et al be non-pathogenic endophytes, or putative novel Foc VCGs and VCGs. M. acuminata x M. balbisiana hybrids study, therefore, was reported in west central causing. Mutants, which are planted widely in India banana-producing provinces by Li et al the ability to cause disease particular... Conditions in each country isolates warrant further investigation, as most of Asia ’ s are... Microconidia were produced in abundance, and relatedness to previously described genotypes of the pathogen ] following a conducted! 37 ] important management implications new PDA plates after 3 days for the domestic market 2006 to were! Extracted and purified using the protocol provided by Wizard SV Genomic DNA purification System (... About PLOS Subject areas, click here and banana variety was the dominant strain. Between countries ) is an important group of filamentous fungi that includes plant-pathogenic.., 0121, 0124 and 0125, and was now also found in China and Taiwan are also Cavendish.! Singular forma specialis, abbreviated f.sp. ) isolate of VCGs recorded was Sri Lanka, with isolates were! And 0128 each were isolated from banana samples collected in the Philippines, Foc 1-resistant. Not compatible to known VCGs ( S1 Table ) way to help detect hidden gold. In cross compatibility between different VCGs were limited, future surveys could reveal a more widespread occurrence be! Were produced in abundance, and wide readership – a perfect fit for research...