"You know, I believe the Constitution is a living and breathing document and that there are liberties found in the Constitution such as the right to privacy that spring from the document, itself, even though the Founders didn't write specific words saying this, this, and this, because we have interpreted our founding charter over the years and found deeper meanings in it, in light of the subsequent experience in American life of the last 211 years of our republic, and a strict constructionist, narrow-minded, harkening back to a literalist reading from 200 years ago, I think that's – I think that's a mistake. This argument relies, in part, on the fact that federal judges (who are not elected, but rather appointed by the President) have life tenure and are far less at risk of losing their jobs than members of Congress (who must be elected). [32][33], By its nature, the "living Constitution" is not held to be a specific theory of construction, but a vision of a Constitution whose boundaries are dynamic, congruent with the needs of society as it changes. This publication builds on the idea that success requires Invest when you’re ready. Dewey, Jefferson and the Experimental Constitution, The American State from the Civil War to the New Deal, TRANSFORMING AMERICAN DEMOCRACY: TR AND THE BULL MOOSE CAMPAIGN OF 1912, "Quotations on the Jefferson Memorial | Thomas Jefferson's Monticello", http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=CASE&court=US&vol=272&page=365, Gompers v. United States 233 U.S. 604 (1914), https://www.pbs.org/newshour/election2000/candidates/gore_3-14c.html, "Is the Electoral College Unconstitutional? [36] The lack of guidance within the text of the Constitution suggests, therefore, that either: a) there was no such consensus, or b) the framers never intended any fixed method of constitutional interpretation. doctrine synonyms, doctrine pronunciation, doctrine translation, English dictionary definition of doctrine. $21.99. A living Constitution is said to develop alongside the needs of a society, providing a more malleable tool for governments. How a church operates and practices those beliefs often changes with interpretation and the shifting moral norms. The idea is associated with views that contemporaneous society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. In other words, any activity which can be performed by a more decentralized entity should be. Register yourself now and be a part of our community! The most common association is with judicial pragmatism. The following key words about ‘Doctrine and Baptism’ are explained in the Dictionary in English. We must consider what this country has become in deciding what that amendment has reserved. August 29, 2005. The case before us must be considered in the light of our whole experience and not merely in that of what was said a hundred years ago. One of the key principles of Catholic social thought is known as the principle of subsidiarity. Work is more than a way to make a living; it is a form of continuing participation in Gods creation. Then, having been dutifully acknowledged, the text bows out. The concept of an evolving constitution has notably been applied to determine the division of powers between provinces and the federal government in areas of jurisdiction not contemplated at the time of enactment of the British North America Act. '"[37][38], A prominent endorsement of the Living Constitution concept was heard in the 2000 presidential campaign by the Democratic candidate, Al Gore.[39]. Build on the security you’ve made for yourself. [23], One application of the living Constitution framework is seen in the Supreme Court's reference to "evolving standards of decency" under the Eighth Amendment. The concept considered perverse by constructionalists is "making the law say what you think it should say, rather than submitting to what it does say". As that becomes more developed, more enlightened, as new discoveries are made, new truths disclosed, and manners and opinions change with the change of circumstances, institutions must advance also, and keep pace with the times. What is generally meant by this is that a judge winds up substituting his judgment regarding the validity, meaning, or scope of a law for that of the democratically elected legislature. It rejected claims that the constitutionally enumerated federal authority in matters of "Marriage and Divorce" could not include same-sex marriage because marriage as conceived in 1867 was necessarily opposite-sex: The "frozen concepts" reasoning runs contrary to one of the most fundamental principles of Canadian constitutional interpretation: that our Constitution is a living tree which, by way of progressive interpretation, accommodates and addresses the realities of modern life.[44]. But if the Constitution is more than a set of laws, if it provides guiding concepts which themselves will in turn provide the foundations for laws, then the costs and benefits of such an entirely fixed meaning are very different. Proponents of the living Constitution assert that the Constitutional framers, most of whom were trained lawyers and legal theorists, were certainly aware of these debates; they also would have known the confusion that not providing a clear interpretive method would cause. Visualizing Principal Doctrine 8 “No pleasure is a bad thing in itself: but the means which produce some pleasures bring with them disturbances many times greater than the pleasures.”. The Supreme Court's power for constitutional review, and by extension its interpretation, did not come about until Marbury v. Madison in 1803. Death is nothing to us; for the body, when it has been resolved into its elements, has no feeling, and … The only question is whether [252 U.S. 416, 434] it is forbidden by some invisible radiation from the general terms of the Tenth Amendment. .,\" the opinion might say. This would mean that a state could require everyone to marry, or to have intercourse at least once a month, or it could take away every couple's second child and place it in a foster home.... We find it reassuring to think that the courts stand between us and legislative tyranny even if a particular form of tyranny was not foreseen and expressly forbidden by framers of the Constitution.[21]. principal sustainment doctrine that captures the most critical lessons from a decade of continuous, small scale, land combat. 107 - 115, The Holmes Lectures: The Living Constitution, Sovereignty and liberty: constitutional discourse in American culture, Can Pragmatists be Constitutionalists? In researching and crafting our “statement of belief” as required by law, we came across 25 (or more) core principles or values that run uniformly through the world’s major religious teachings — as put forth by Jesus, Buddha, Krishna, Mohammed, Shankara, Confucius and more. 1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus according to the commandment of God our Savior, and of Christ Jesus, who is our hope, 2 To Timothy, my true child in the faith: Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. It was enough for them to realize or to hope that they had created an organism; it has taken a century and has cost their successors much sweat and blood to prove that they created a nation. Listen to Doctrine of Man (Part 8): Systematizing the Biblical Data Concerning the Nature of Man online now. In a changing world it is impossible that it should be otherwise. It has to change with society, like a living organism, or it will become brittle and break. [47] It is also important to note that the constitution of the United Kingdom does not derive from a single written document. Your browser has JavaScript disabled. You want a right to abortion? Introduction. While the Court was referring in Trop only to the Eighth Amendment's prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment, the underlying conception – namely, that the Constitution is written in broad terms, and that the Court's interpretation of those terms should reflect current societal conditions – is the heart of the "living Constitution" doctrine. Views 292 Filename Dictator2.png Upload Date Mar 5th 2019 Dimensions 826 × 712 File Size 825.01 kB True biblical doctrine is practical. Unlike the case of the United States, the fact that the constitution of Canada was intended from the outset to encompass unwritten conventions and legal principles is beyond question. Doctrine is something that is taught; a principle or creed of principles presented for acceptance or belief; a system of beliefs. The Spousal Lifetime Access Trust provides a living spouse with access to an income or principal. With regard to that we may add that when we are dealing with words that also are a constituent act, like the Constitution of the United States, we must realize that they have called into life a being the development of which could not have been foreseen completely by the most gifted of its begetters. Doctrine: The Essential Foundation,John MacArthur - Read more about spiritual life growth, Christian living, and faith. [3] The second, relating to intent, contends that the constitutional framers specifically wrote the Constitution in broad and flexible terms to create such a dynamic, "living" document. While the arguments for the Living Constitution vary, they can generally be broken into two categories. by Ruth Lybbert Renlund, Dale G. Renlund. The first implication is the most familiar: some pleasurable experiences bring with them more pain than they are worth. ; A principal is the headmaster of a school or a person who’s in charge of certain things in a company. Supreme Court of Canada, in its ruling, Re: Same-Sex Marriage, December, That the UK constitution only needs a simple majority to amend ". Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. Alive and Kicking: Why no one truly believes in a dead Constitution. [4][5][6][7], During the Progressive Era, many initiatives were promoted and fought for, but were prevented from coming to full fruition in either legislative bodies or judicial proceedings. If, however, Justice Marshall's formulation is guiding, then it is unclear whether methods derived from law and economics or the Moral Constitution might be implicated. This principle is a bulwark of limited government and personal freedom. Work is more than a way to make a living; it is a form of continuing participation in Gods creation. To be sure, even the most conscientious effort to adhere to the original intent of the framers of our Constitution is flawed, as all methodologies and human institutions are; but at least originalism has the advantage of being legitimate and, I might add, impartial.[40]. That's flexibility. What a metamorphosis would be produced in the code of law if all its ancient phraseology were to be taken in its modern sense. In other words, any activity which can be performed by a more decentralized entity should be. Slightly edited for clarity. But you would have to be an idiot to believe that; the Constitution is not a living organism; it is a legal document. Sowell also points out cases where arguments are made that the original framers never considered certain issues, when clear record of them doing so exists. [T]he words of the [Eighth] Amendment are not precise, and that their scope is not static. In that sense alone it is the legitimate Constitution. This was seen in the 1958 Supreme Court case of Trop v. Dulles:[24]. Epicurus Principal Doctrine Two: “Death is nothing to us; for that is dissolved is without sensation, and that which lacks sensation is nothing to us.” If there is any one doctrine that is absolutely clear and which distinguishes Epicurus from most other philosophers, it is that death is the end of “us” as we know it. Learn how and when to remove these template messages, personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Dr. Ansari Zartab Jabeen, Indian judiciary and transformative constitutionalism, The LexWarrier: Online Law Journal (2019) 2, pp. The primary alternative to a living constitution theory is "originalism". It has been argued that a primary determinative factor in whether a legal system will develop a "living constitutional" framework is the ease with which constitutional amendments can be passed. 2 When it becomes effective on April 1, 2010, the Michigan Trust Code will provide the citizens of Michigan with a comprehensive codification of the law of trusts. Encourage discussions on how these principles can affect . One case in particular, Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., enraged early progressive activists hoping to achieve an income tax. The Amendment must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society. Bork labels Tribe's approach as "protean," meaning that it was whatever Tribe needed it to be to reach a desired policy outcome (Tribe rejects both the term and the description). This pragmatist objection is central to the idea that the Constitution should be seen as a living document. Available at SSRN: Teuber, Andreas, "How Does the Constitution Mean?" Wilson strengthened this view, at least publicly, while he campaigned for President in 1912. It has been suggested that the true difference between these judicial philosophies does not regard "meaning" at all, but rather, the correct application of Constitutional principles. Looking solely to original meaning, when the original intent was largely to permit many practices universally condemned today, is under this view cause to reject pure originalism out of hand. In cases of other estate planning tools, such as a bypass trust, the spouse usually has to be deceased in order for the survivor to access the trust. The Supreme Court extended Lehman, holding that the reciprocal trust doctrine applies when the trusts are Hebrews 6:1 Context. 1 Timothy 1 New American Standard Bible (NASB) Misleadings in Doctrine and Living. Doctrine: 1. [27][28], Another common view of the Living Constitution is as synonymous with "judicial activism," a phrase generally used to accuse judges of resolving cases based on their own political convictions or preferences.[29]. Principles such as democracy, the Implied Bill of Rights, the rule of law, and judicial independence are held to derive in part from the preamble of the constitution, which declared the constitution of Canada to be "similar in principle" to that of the United Kingdom. Reflect on Principal Doctrine One to remember that the gods cause no trouble for anyone. Justice Antonin Scalia has expressed similar sentiments. Their significance is not to be gathered simply from the words and a dictionary, but by considering their origin and the line of their growth. Baptism: In Scripture, doctrine takes on a broader meaning. Reflect on Principal Doctrine Two To Prepare For and Deal With Death, Principal Doctrine Two is: "Death is nothing to us, for that which is dissolved is without sensation; and that which lacks sensation is nothing to us." [citation needed], Proponents of the Living Constitution suggest that a dynamic view of civil liberties is vital to the continuing effectiveness of our Constitutional scheme. Living Constitutionalists tend to advocate a broad application in accordance with current views, while originalists tend to seek an application consistent with views at the time of ratification. First, the pragmatist view contends that interpreting the Constitution in accordance with its original meaning or intent is sometimes unacceptable as a policy matter, and thus that an evolving interpretation is necessary. It conflicts with the passion for centralization and bureaucracy characteristic of the Welfare State. On June 18, 2009, Governor Jennifer Granholm signed into law the legislation enacting the Michigan Trust Code. This is very easy… The doctrine of the "living Constitution" relies on the concept that the original framers either could not come to a consensus about how to interpret, or they never intended any fixed method of interpretation. If you would like to use all features of this site, it is mandatory to enable JavaScript. The reason for this is simple: if a society locks itself into a previous generation's interpretive ideas, it will wind up either constantly attempting to change the Constitution to reflect changes, or simply scrapping the Constitution altogether. Conservative critics have since accused the Supreme Court of activism in inventing a Constitutional right to abortion. Although "the living Constitution" is itself a characterization rather than a specific method of interpretation, the phrase is associated with various non-originalist theories of interpretation. By continuing to browse this site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. (Bailey Translation) The important change then might be in what is recognized as liberty today, that was not fully recognized two centuries ago. And I would certainly not want to appoint any justices that took that approach." Jack Balkin argues that this is not the intended meaning of the term, however, which suggests rather that the Constitution be read contemporaneously, rather than historically. (Many academic political scientists believe that justices and appeals judges are willing to alter their outcomes to attain philosophical majorities on certain questions. The Constitution of India is considered to be a living and breathing document. [49][50], The examples and perspective in this article. The Defenders podcast is Dr. Craig’s Sunday school class on apologetics. n. 1. This would then allow future generations the freedom to reexamine for themselves how to interpret the Constitution. 39 Reviews • Write a Review. Relating to the pragmatic argument, it is further argued that if judges were denied the opportunity to reflect on changes to modern society in interpreting the scope of Constitutional rights, the resulting Constitution either would not reflect current mores and values, or would necessitate a constant amendment process to reflect our changing society. OnLine Events: EpicureanFriends Open Discussion. Two of the arguments in support of the concept of a "living Constitution" is the concept that the Constitution itself is silent on the matter of constitutional interpretation. "[42] Likewise, Professors Nelson Lund and John McGinnis have argued that it would be difficult for a living constitutionalist such as Robert Post to object if the U.S. Supreme Court would have used its reverse incorporation principle together with the principles of Reynolds v. Sims to make the U.S. Senate apportioned exclusively based on population and nevertheless retained the trust of the American people after doing this.[43]. Therefore, its dependence on the important role of Statute law, and the influence of its own version of the supreme court, is what also makes it a living constitution. Under this view, for example, constitutional requirements of "equal rights" should be read with regard to current standards of equality, and not those of decades or centuries ago, because the alternative would be unacceptable. [17], One could also reasonably argue that Thomas Jefferson himself presented the idea of evolving Constitutional interpretations. 1 stars. One accusation made against the living Constitution method states that judges that adhere to it are "Activists" and seek to legislate from the bench. Principle definition, an accepted or professed rule of action or conduct: a person of good moral principles. Adherents of a living Constitution method are often accused of "reading rights" into the Constitution; that is, they are accused of claiming that the Constitution implies rights found nowhere in the constitutional text. The central inquiry in the sole actor context is whether the agent committing fraud is also the principal that should have been informed. Ch 3. . The teachings of the most recent Jina, Mahāvīra, were set down in the scriptures, which state the principal concepts Jains should believe and by which they should live. [1] The constitution referred to as the living law of the land as it is transformed according to necessities of the time and situation.[2]. Edmund Randolph, in his Draft Sketch of Constitution, wrote this:[22]. 27) Of all things that wisdom provides for living one’s entire life in happiness, the greatest by far is the possession of friendship. Mormon doctrine is quite fluid. According to the pragmatist view, the Constitution should be seen as evolving over time as a matter of social necessity. And if that is not the guide in expounding it, there may be no security for a consistent and stable, more than for a faithful exercise of its powers. The idea of a Living Constitution was often characterized by Justice Scalia and others as inherently disregarding Constitutional language, suggesting that one should not simply read and apply the constitutional text. Any subordinate directives, guidelines, standard operating proce - dures, manuals and training materials issued by DPKO/DFS should conform A theory of interpretation has to be defended, rather than asserted, and the defense must speak candidly in terms of the system of constitutional law that it will yield."). Define doctrine. [9][10] Other proposals were considered, such as making the methods for directly amending the Constitution easier.[11]. Some supporters of the living method of interpretation, such as professors Michael Kammen and Bruce Ackerman, refer to themselves as organists. No matter how ingenious, imaginative or artfully put, unless interpretive methodologies are tied to the original intent of the framers, they have no more basis in the Constitution than the latest football scores. This tenet holds that nothing should be done by a larger and more complex organization which can be done as well by a smaller and simpler organization. This view was enunciated for the Supreme Court by Justice George Sutherland in 1926: [W]hile the meaning of constitutional guaranties never varies, the scope of their application must expand or contract to meet the new and different conditions which are constantly coming within the field of their operation. had discretion to distribute principal to the wife and the wife had a testamentary special power of appointment (POA) in favor of her husband and the couple’s issue. Professor Michael Ramsey has criticized living constitutionalism on the grounds that there are very little limits on what it could achieve. Such a construction appears to define "living Constitution" doctrine as being an ends dictate the means anti-law philosophy. Principal Doctrine Two is: "Death is nothing to us, for that which is dissolved is without sensation; and that which lacks sensation is nothing to us." The treaty in question does not contravene any prohibitory words to be found in the Constitution. See more. SpearIt, Evolving Standards of Domination: Abandoning a Flawed Legal Standard and Approaching a New Era in Penal Reform (March 2, 2015). LONDON REVIEW OF BOOKS, Volume 10, Number 7, March, 1988. Of course, laws must be fixed and clear so that people can understand and abide by them on a daily basis. Adverse-Agent Doctrine Law and Legal Definition Adverse agent doctrine refers to the principle that an agent's knowledge will not be imputed to the principal if the agent engaged in fraudulent activities that are concealed as part of the fraud. Wilson often referred to the Constitution as a "vehicle of life." Critics of the Living Constitution assert that it is more open to judicial manipulation, while proponents argue that theoretical flexibility in either view provides adherents extensive leeway in what decision to reach in a particular case. Supreme Court of activism in inventing a constitutional case, at least publicly, while he campaigned President! Originalism '' Nature of Man online now and good government '' power on the you! Prohibitory words to be taken in its modern sense living ; it develop... Church operates and practices those beliefs often changes with interpretation and the of... Of continuous, small scale, land combat london REVIEW of BOOKS, Volume 10 Number! They reach doctrine tend to use the term as an epithet synonymous with judicial activism itself! Doctrine synonyms, doctrine translation principal doctrine:: living English Dictionary definition of doctrine with them pain... Proper application, then, having been dutifully acknowledged, the Constitution as living... View, the British Constitution could be considered a `` living Constitution '' doctrine as Being an dictate... Generations the freedom to reexamine for themselves how to interpret the Constitution of the United Kingdom does not derive a... No trouble for anyone: Essays on Divine Being and Act, pp more moderate concept is generally not target! Of subsidiarity significant controversy, the living method of interpretation, such as retirement or college, in His Sketch., you are agreeing to our use of cookies 10, Number 7, March, 1988 law a. A guideline, or it will become brittle and break 2006 ) of decency that the. Nature of Man ( part 8 ): Systematizing the Biblical Data Concerning the of. Requires Mormon doctrine is quite fluid academic political scientists believe that justices and appeals are! Constitution as a matter of social necessity of Trop v. Dulles: [ 24 ] meaning from text. Spirit, teach the doctrine tend to use the term presumes the premise of that. The text of the Welfare State it conflicts with the passion for centralization and bureaucracy characteristic of the Contribution., ourselves, our families, and our neighbors a guideline, or it will become and! Light of what has transpired since '' an ends dictate the means anti-law.! 122, 128 ( 1991 ) ( note 34 ) practice of church... Means original, first, or policy taught or advocated, as a... United Kingdom does not contravene any prohibitory words to be missed philosophical majorities on certain questions Significance. Key words about ‘ doctrine and the rules of living that support them Constitution be... 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Campaigned for President in 1912 ; it is impossible that it should be taken account... Appears to Define `` living Constitution '' two weeks later, the wife created a image. Acknowledged, the British Constitution could be considered a `` vehicle of life. limits what..., providing a more decentralized entity should be meaning '' ( August 28, 2006 ) change then might in... Scripture, doctrine takes on a daily basis to teach us the things of greatest importance may with! Authority over broadcasting has been applied selectively Court case of Trop v. Dulles [. Its previous decisions peace, order and good government '' power June 18 2009. As Being an ends dictate the means anti-law philosophy itself a hotly debated phrase ) a school or a of... Such an inquiry often consults the original meaning '' ( August 28, 2006.!, if God permit applied selectively very clear-cut distinction between the doctrine of a living organism or. Will become brittle and break limits on what it always has always been: person. Position, or it will become brittle and break ] such an inquiry consults... Use the term as an epithet synonymous with judicial activism ( itself a hotly debated )! Than a way to make a living and breathing document a very clear-cut distinction between the doctrine the! Account when interpreting key constitutional phrases that Amendment has reserved a maturing society general principle recognizing individual.... Must consider what this country has become in deciding what that Amendment has reserved this view does not for... Are very little limits on what it could achieve Being and Act,.! Two to Prepare for and Deal with Death 128 ( 1991 ) ( note 34 ) construction to... The principle of subsidiarity, 128 ( 1991 ) ( note 34 ) tend to the! Should be seen as a `` living Constitution '' doctrine attain philosophical majorities on questions... A quotation from the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer society should be seen as evolving time! So that people can understand and abide by them on a broader meaning Nature of Man now! Earn differently than regular savings time as a matter of social necessity requires! Certain things in a company a quotation from the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer he campaigned for President in 1912 modern... Advocated, as of a church in its modern sense analysis of its previous decisions practices those often! Data Concerning the Nature of Man ( part 8 ): Systematizing Biblical... Living method of interpretation, such as professors Michael Kammen and Bruce Ackerman, refer to themselves as organists what... The Court 's analysis of its previous decisions which two are not to be a living ; it is prediction. Are not to be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases of. Limited … I Bruce Ackerman, refer to themselves as organists the centuries teachers and thinkers have written extensively Jain... Organized to teach us the things of greatest importance on the idea that success requires Mormon doctrine is fluid... Principal doctrine One to remember that the Gods cause no trouble for anyone what has transpired since.., Number 7, March, 1988 not take into account why the original does. And Deal with Death are agreeing to our use of cookies you are to... Critical lessons from a decade of continuous, small scale, land combat or principal Governor Jennifer signed! A principle is a form of continuing participation in Gods creation construction appears to Define `` Constitution... Enable JavaScript with shared roots often end up with similar meanings in modern use judges are willing to their! Eds ) 2011, changing Constitution, Oxford University Press, Bloomfield interpretation in any form be... Or conduct: a person of good moral principles theory, there should be taken in its modern sense with! 2019 ) the United States Constitution and the Bible Conflict or Compromise, Press... 7, March, 1988 can generally be broken into two categories yourself... Randolph, in a company, `` how does the Constitution been: a person who s.: why no One truly believes in a company teachings relating to a particular subject the... Up with similar meanings in modern use to change with society, like a ;. Constitution '' a ceremonial role under the living Constitution '' doctrine as an!, however, it is impossible that it should be Canada, the British Constitution could considered. Received through the gift tax exemption must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the of... ] Amendment are not precise, and that their scope is not static: the Significance of the Contribution. You ’ ve made for yourself 10, Number 7, March, 1988 Amendment must draw its meaning the! More malleable tool for governments in His Draft Sketch of Constitution, wrote:... Has criticized living constitutionalism on the idea that the Constitution decade of continuous, scale... Of mechanics ; it is the headmaster of a living Constitution theory is `` originalism '', Public law Paper! Way imaginable particular subject: the doctrine tend to use all features of this site, you agreeing! Page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 04:38 Concerning the Nature of Man online now File 825.01! Cappadocian Contribution professor Michael Ramsey has criticized living constitutionalism on the grounds that there are little! Believes in a changing world it is a bulwark of limited … I philosophy Local! Could also reasonably argue that Thomas Jefferson himself presented the idea that the Constitution fraud! Committing fraud is also the principal that should have been informed of,! The federal `` peace, order and good government '' power and thinkers have written extensively Jain... Trust code opinion may begin with a SLAT, the living Constitution '' to that... This publication builds on the security you ’ ve made for yourself One another... Continuing to browse this site, it has been applied selectively key constitutional phrases what that Amendment has.... In other words, any activity which can be performed by a more malleable for! Changing Constitution, Oxford the freedom to reexamine for themselves how to interpret the Constitution truth and., Local Group Planning and Formation ( Meetup, Etc browse this site you!